Study 7/0 visualizes the positioning errors generated by a static GPS receiver.

At 04:46:36PM on 7 July 2010, I placed my Garmin GPSmap 60Cx on my desk, turned it on with a draw track function, and kept it there powered on for 7 days, 7 hours, 16 minutes and 11 seconds (until 00:02:47AM on 15 July). While the ideal GPS plot for an immovable object is a single point, this setup had recorded 8438 different position points on a path 34.7 kilometers long, covering an area of 2.1km2 with average speed of 0.2km/h and maximum speed of 17.9km/h. The path is a consequence of limited precision of a commercial GPS receiver working inside a building under changing weather conditions, combined with general GPS inaccuracy. With time-stamps, horizontal positions, altitudes and speeds for all trackpoints, the path constitutes a large dataset.

In this version I animated the horizontal positions (longitude/latitude) over time, speeding up the 630,971 seconds of real-time record into watchable 281.26 seconds (4 minutes, 41 seconds and 8 frames at 30fps). The first video isolates the current 2.25% of the whole path (780m), revealing the complex dynamics of error-generated motion. The second video follows the current 2.25% building up into the complete path. Each animation displays all corresponding numerical values from the dataset.

Study 7/0 is a study of the effective approaches to emergence in generative art in which a simple set of the initial rules of the system can produce complex and unpredictable phenomena. In this context it is configurations and relations. Motivated by the idea of cognitive mapping as an individual, non-linear and discontinuous spatiotemporal experience, the project explores error and imperfections as generators of interesting formal, conceptual and narrative source material for further creative processing and expression, as opposed to typical glitch art where the error is itself the frontline layer that gets aestheticised.


2.25% (no sound)

2.25 over 100% (no sound)


The original path



Dejan Grba is a media artist, author and educator. His artistic investigation of the perceptive, cognitive and cultural factors of visual phenomenology is focused on constitution, representation and interpretation of the individual notion of reality.

He has exhibited and lectured at venues including ADM/NTU Singapore, ISEA Manizales and Hong Kong, SIVA Shanghai, ZKM Karlsruhe, IFA Berlin, GfZK Leipzig, Montevideo Amsterdam, MiP Vienna, CCN and <rotor> Graz, MoCA Novi Sad, MoCA and MST Belgrade.

He chairs New Media department at the Faculty of Fine Arts in Belgrade where he teaches Transmedia Research. He teaches Poetics of Digital Art seminar at Digital Art PhD program at University of the Arts in Belgrade. He was a guest professor with Computer Art program at the CVPA at Syracuse University, NY.